Introduction: In 2017 in Lao PDR, 33% of children under age 5 suffered from chronic malnutrition (stunting), 9% suffered from acute malnutrition (wasting), 40% of pregnant women were anemic. Obesity and noncommunicable diseases have significantly increased since 2005, evidencing another concerning burden of malnutrition. When energy intake does not meet or exceeds an individual’s energy needs, body composition can put an individual at greater risk for health problems. Malnutrition hinders physical and cognitive development, impairs sensory organ function and immune function, and increases susceptibility to infectious disease and its consequences. As a result, malnutrition is the top risk factor for death and disability in Lao PDR. Yet, the risk for and rates of malnutrition in the hospital setting in Lao PDR have not been researched or described in the literature. Conclusions: The use of MUAC in adult patients to identify risk for malnutrition may be used effectively, particularly in low-resource settings. Anthropometric measurements can be easily trained to and conducted by healthcare professionals in Lao PDR for nutritional assessment. Quickly identifying patients at risk for malnutrition and initiating appropriate nutrition interventions helps improve patient care and utilization of resources.